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Monitoring of agricultural biogas plants in Upper Austria

Project Leader
Amon Thomas, Project Leader
Duration:
01.06.2002-30.08.2003
Type of Research
Applied Research

Further information: http://www.boku.ac.at/iluet/lt/th_ut/page/index_u.htm

Staff
Amon Barbara, Project Staff
Hopfner-Sixt Katharina, Project Staff (bis 30.06.2008)
BOKU Research Units
Division of Agricultural Engineering
Funded by
Amt der Oberösterreichischen Landesregierung, Kärntnerstraße 12, 4020 Linz, Austria
Abstract
Renewable energies become more and more important as resources of fossil fuels decline. Biogas plants produce renewable energy from anaerobic digestion of animal manures, energy plants and/or organic wastes. Through agricultural biogas plants, biomass becomes an important economic factor in rural areas, agricultural added value increases and new jobs are created. In Austria ca. 25 million tons of animal manures and 15 million tons of energy crop biomass per year are available for anaerobic digestion in agricultural biogas plants. The conversion of biogas in combined heat and power couplings would yield 4,900 GWh electricity and 6,7000 GWh heat. This corresponds to 10 % of Austrian electricity production and to the heat requirement of ca. 450,000 one-family houses. Currently about 120 agricultural biogas plants are operated in Austria. They have a total power of 6 MW. The provincial government of Upper Austria promotes the dissemination of biogas technology. They fund a study on the “monitoring of agricultural biogas plants in Upper Austria”. The study comprises substantial information on the status quo in biogas technology.
10 Upper Austrian agricultural biogas plants are described in detail. The descriptions include details on biogas technology, characteristic values of the process of biogas production, work requirement, optimum technological design, and pre-conditions of an economic operation of agricultural biogas plants. The biogas plants had a performance of 45.5 – 137 kWel.. 40 % of fermentation tanks were vertical digesters, 60 % were horizontal digesters. Hydraulic residence time was 20 – 35 days in the horizontal digesters and 35 – 95 days in the secondary fermentation tanks. In the vertical digesters, hydraulic residence time was 27 – 40 days, and 27 – 40 days in the secondary fermentation tanks. Hydraulic residence time should not fall below 40 – 50 days at 35 – 40 °C in order to guarantee that at least 95 % of the methane potential of organic substrates are exploited.
When the digested substrates consisted of more than 50 % animal manures, biogas yield was 44 – 73 m3 biogas per m3 manures. A biogas plant that only digested energy crops achieved a biogas yield of 107 m3 per m3 energy crops. When only organic wastes were digested, biogas yield was 84 m3 per m3 organic wastes. Addition of energy crops and co-substrates increases the biogas yield. However, if co-substrates other than energy crops are added, the price for electricity is reduced by 25 % (Austrian law on green electricity production).
Mean work requirement was 823 hours per year. Optimum planning of the biogas plant, a good management and a well adapted degree of automation should keep the work requirement at 1 – 2 hours per day. If the daily work rate fell below 1 hour, this would lead to a reduction on quality of biogas plant management.
Economic efficiency requires a plant size of 101 – 500 kWel.. Below this size it will be difficult to operate the plant economically efficient. Investment costs were about 336,000 € (including VAT). Specific investment costs were 5,100 € kWel.-1. With 4,000 – 5,000 € kWel.-1 up to date biogas plants can be built. Incentives e.g. for heat usage, slurry stores and energy crops storage should be given in order to improve economic efficiency of new biogas plants.
Keywords
agricultural engineering; electrical instrumentation; energy technology; power economics; technical documentation; environmental protection; agronomy; crop husbandry; agricultural ecology; renewable energy; renewable resources; renewable resources; animal production; agricultural economics; agricultural machines and equipment; agricultural construction;
agricultural biogas production;
Publications

* Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Bodiroza, V., Kryvoruchko, V., Milovanovic, D., Zollitsch, W., Boxberger, J. (2006): Biogas production from agricultural resources: characteristic values for material and energetic evaluation.

Landtechnik. Fachzeitschrift für Agrartechnik und ländliches Bauen, 3/2006; ISSN 0023-8082 FullText

Amon, B., Fröhlich, M., Ramusch, M., Winiwarter W. (2006): Research for climate protection-technological options for mitigation (Reclip:tom)..
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S. (Eds.), DIAS report plant production no. 123, . Vol. II,pp 229 - 231. , 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus; ISBN: ISBN 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Amon, B., Kryvoruchko, V., Fröhlich, M., Amon, T., Pöllinger, A., Mösenbacher, I., Hausleitner, A. (2006): NH3 and GHG emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: housing, and manure storage. .
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S. (Eds.), DIAS report plant production no. 122, Dänemark, Vol. II, pp 171 - 174. , 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus; ISBN: 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Amon, T., Amon B., Kryvoruchko V., Hopfner-Sixt K., Moser, A., Zollitsch, W. (2006): Biogas Forum Austria-Network of research, extension service, and commercial farms..
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S. (Eds.), 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective, DIAS report plant production no. 123, Vol. II, pp 113 - 115, 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September 2006, Aarhus; ISBN: 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Amon, T., Amon, B., Machmüller, A., Hopfner-Sixt K., Kryvoruchko V., Bodiroza, V. (2006): European Biogas Initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants (EU-Agro Biogas)..
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S. (Eds.), DIAS report plant production no. 123, pp 121 - 123. , 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus, Vol. II; ISBN: ISBN 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Hopfner-Sixt, K. (2006): Leistungsvergleich verschiedener Biogasanlagensysteme.
[Fachkongress Biogas 06 II 2006 - Zukunfstpotentiale nutzen - Prozesse optimieren, Linz, Austria, 30.11.2006 - 01.12.2006]

In: Klima aktiv (Hrsg.), pp. 51-60, Biogas 06 II, Zukunfstpotentiale nutzen - Prozesse optimieren, 30.11.-01.12., Linz

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T. (2006): Monitoring landwirtschaftlicher Biogasanlagen in Österreich – Durchmischungstechnik und Kennwerte wesentlicher Prozessparameter.
[15. Symposium Bioenergie 2006, Bad Staffelstein, Germany, 23.11.2006 - 24.11.2006]

In: Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) (Hrsg.): , pp 384 – 389 , 15.Symposium BIOENERGIE – Festbrennstoffe, Flüssigkraftstoffe, Biogas, 23./24. November , Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Milovanovic, D., Amon, B. (2006): Monitoring of energy crop digestion in Austria..
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S.(Eds.) , DIAS report plant production no. 123 Vol. II, Denmark, pp 117 - 119., 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus, Vol. II; ISBN: ISBN 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Amon, T., Kryvoruchko, V., Amon, B., Hopfner-Sixt, K. (2004): Forum Biogas Austria: Network from natural resources to application..
[1. Minisymposium für Nachwachsende Rohstoffe und Erneuerbare Energien 2004, Vienna, Austria, 04.06.2004]

In: Praznik, W.: 1. Minisymposium für Nachwachsende Rohstoffe und Erneuerbare Energien, 4. Juni 2004, Wien

Amon, T., Reingruber, H. (2004): Ökoenergieoffensive – Oberösterreich verdoppelt heuer Zahl der Biogasanlagen, Bauern nutzen die Chance..

Medien - Information zur Pressekonferenz mit LR Josef Stockinger, 22. April 2004, Presseinformation der OÖ-LR

Amon, T., Cadilek, M., Hopfner-Sixt, K., Schoberleitner, W., Swoboda, M. (2004): Landwirtschaftliche Biogasanlagen, 4. überarbeitete Auflage.

In: ÖKL Arbeitskreis Energie, ÖKL-Merkblatt, Nr. 61, 12; ÖKL, Wien

Amon, T., Döhler, H. (2004): Qualität und Verwendung des Gärrestes..

In: Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V., Handreichung – Biogasgewinnung und –nutzung., 153 - 165; KTBL, Darmstadt; ISBN ISBN 3-00-014333-5

Amon, T., Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, B. (2003): Ökostrom aus Biogas: Was Sie über Anlagen-Genehmigung wissen müssen.

Bioenergie , 34, 8

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Amon, B. (2003): Ökostrom aus Biogas: Voraussetzungen für einen wirtschaftlichen Betrieb.

Bioenergie, 41, 8 ¿ 9

Vorträge

Amon, B. (2006): Research for climate protection-technological options for mitigation (Reclip:tom).. [Poster]

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus FullText

Amon, B., Kryvoruchko, V., Fröhlich, M., Amon, T., Pöllinger, A., Mösenbacher, I., Hausleitner, A. (2006): NH3 and GHG emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: housing, and manure storage. .

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus FullText

Amon, T., Amon, B., Machmüller, A., Hopfner-Sixt K., Kryvoruchko V., Bodiroza, V. (2006): European Biogas Initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants (EU-Agro Biogas).. [Poster]

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus FullText

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T. (2006): Leistungsvergleich verschiedener Biogasanlagensysteme.

Biogas 06 II, Zukunfstpotentiale nutzen - Prozesse optimieren, 30.11.-01.12., Linz

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T. (2006): Monitoring landwirtschaftlicher Biogasanlagen in Österreich – Durchmischungstechnik und Kennwerte wesentlicher Prozessparameter.

15.Symposium BIOENERGIE – Festbrennstoffe, Flüssigkraftstoffe, Biogas, 23./24. November , Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Milovanovic, D., Amon, B. (2006): Monitoring of energy crop digestion in Austria.. [Poster]

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus FullText

Amon, T. (2004): Biogaserträge aus landwirtschaftlichen Gärgütern.

10. Alpenländischen Expertenforums: „Biogasproduktion – alternative Biogasnutzung und Energiegewinnung in der Landwirtschaft, 18 – 19. März 2004, BAL Gumpenstein

Amon, T. (2004): Potenziale, Anlagentechnik der Biogaserzeugung in der Landwirtschaft mit Schwerpunkt der Nutzung von NAWAROS.

Biogasbetreiberschulung der Lk-Kärnten und der LFI-Steiermark, 16.04.2004, Graz

Amon, T. (2004): Verfahrenstechnische Voraussetzungen und Anforderungen an Biogasanlagen aus der Sicht der Wissenschaft- Stand der Technik.

Biogasbetreiberkurses der Niederösterreichischen Landes-Landwirtschaftskammer, 29.01.2004, Mold

Hopfner-Sixt, K. (2004): Methanerzeugung aus Energiepflanzen.

Kick-Off Meeting des Forums zukunftsweisende Biogaserzeugung, 27.02.2004, Versuchswirtschaft Großenzersdorf der Universität für Bodenkultur

Amon, Th. (2002): Qualität vom Stall bis zum Teller: eine ganzheitliche Bewertung der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztierhaltung.

Berufungsverfahrens "Nutztierökologie", 24. Juni 2002, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien

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