BOKU - Universität für Bodenkultur Wien - Forschungsinformationssystem

Logo BOKU-Forschungsportal

Gewählte Publikation:

Dorninger, C; Hornborg, A; Abson, DJ; von Wehrden, H; Schaffartzik, A; Giljum, S; Engler, JO; Feller, RL; Hubacek, K; Wieland, H.
(2021): Global patterns of ecologically unequal exchange: Implications for sustainability in the 21st century
ECOL ECON. 2021; 179, 106824 FullText FullText_BOKU

Abstract:
Ecologically unequal exchange theory posits asymmetric net flows of biophysical resources from poorer to richer countries. To date, empirical evidence to support this theoretical notion as a systemic aspect of the global economy is largely lacking. Through environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output modelling, we provide empirical evidence for ecologically unequal exchange as a persistent feature of the global economy from 1990 to 2015. We identify the regions of origin and final consumption for four resource groups: materials, energy, land, and labor. By comparing the monetary exchange value of resources embodied in trade, we find significant international disparities in how resource provision is compensated. Value added per ton of raw material embodied in exports is 11 times higher in high-income countries than in those with the lowest income, and 28 times higher per unit of embodied labor. With the exception of embodied land for China and India, all other world regions serve as net exporters of all types of embodied resources to high-income countries across the 1990-2015 time period. On aggregate, ecologically unequal exchange allows high-income countries to simultaneously appropriate resources and to generate a monetary surplus through international trade. This has far-reaching implications for global sustainability and for the economic growth prospects of nations.
Autor/innen der BOKU Wien:
Schaffartzik Anke
BOKU Gendermonitor:


Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
Ecologically unequal exchange
Embodied trade flows
Environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output analysis
International inequality
International trade
Structural equation model


Altmetric:
© BOKU Wien Impressum