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Gewählte Publikation:

Haberl, H; Krausmann, F.
(2001): Changes in population, affluence, and environmental pressures during industrialization: The case of Austria 1830-1995
POPUL ENVIRON. 2001; 23(1): 49-70. FullText FullText_BOKU

This paper relates changes in aggregate population, affluence (measured as GDP), and indicators for environmental pressures, the latter being based upon the socioeconomic metabolism concept, for Austria from 1830 to 1995. During this period of time Austria underwent a transition from a predominantly agricultural mode of substistence to an industrial economy. The Austrian population increased by a factor of 2.3, total GDP by a factor of 28.2 and per capita GDP by a factor of 12.2. Environmental indicators change by factors of between 0.85 and over 1000. In general we find that although efficiencies (environmental pressure per unit of GDP) increased dramatically, total environmental pressures increased considerably for most indicators, except for those that are related to an agricultural mode of subsistence. Our results indicate that environmental policies that aim to reduce the environmental pressure per unit of GDP (i.e., increase "ecological efficiency") are not likely to be sufficient for sustainable development because efficiency gains are more than compensated for by increases in affluence. instead, sustainability policy should focus on reducing total environmental pressures.
Autor*innen der BOKU Wien:
Haberl Helmut
Krausmann Fridolin
BOKU Gendermonitor:

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
IPAT model
socioeconomic metabolism
energy flow analysis
Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (HANPP)
environmental pressures
environmental history
ecological efficiency

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