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Gewählte Publikation:

Capelli, A; Reiweger, I; Lehmann, P; Schweizer, J.
(2018): Fiber-bundle model with time-dependent healing mechanisms to simulate progressive failure of snow
PHYS REV E. 2018; 98(2): FullText FullText_BOKU

Snow is a heterogeneous material with strain-and/or load-rate-dependent strength. In particular, a transition from ductile-to-brittle failure behavior with increasing load rate is observed. The rate-dependent behavior can partly be explained with the existence of a unique healing mechanism in snow that stems from its high homologous temperature (temperature close to melting point). As soon as broken elements in the ice matrix get in contact, they start sintering and the structure may regain strength. Moreover, the ice matrix is subjected to viscous deformation, inducing a relaxation of local load concentrations and, therefore, further counteracting the damage process. Ideal tools for studying the failure process of heterogeneous materials are the fiber-bundle models (FBMs), which allow investigating the effects of basic microstructural characteristics on the general macroscopic failure behavior. We present an FBM with two concurrent time-dependent healing mechanisms: sintering of broken fibers and relaxation of load inhomogeneities. Sintering compensates damage by creating additional intact, load-supporting fibers which lead to an increase of the bundle strength. However, the character of the failure is not changed by sintering alone. With combined sintering and load relaxation, load is distributed from old stronger fibers to new fibers that carry fewer load. So as we additionally incorporated load redistribution to the FBM, the failure occurred suddenly without decrease of the order parameter-describing the amount of damage in the bundle-and without divergence of the fiber failure rate. Moreover, the b value, i.e., the power-law exponent of frequency-magnitude statistics of fibers breaking in load redistribution steps, at failure converged to b approximate to 2, a value higher than that of a classical FBM without healing (b = 3/2). These results indicate that healing, as the combined effect of sintering and load relaxation, changes the type of the phase transition at failure. This change of the phase transition is important for quantifying or predicting the failure (e.g., by monitoring acoustic emissions) of snow or other materials for which healing plays an important role.
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Reiweger Ingrid
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