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Gewählte Publikation:

Bruckner, A; Schmerbauch, A; Ruess, L; Heigl, F; Zaller, J.
(2019): Foliar Roundup application has minor effects on the compositional and functional diversity of soil microorganisms in a short-term greenhouse experiment
ECOTOX ENVIRON SAFE. 2019; 174: 506-513. FullText FullText_BOKU

The herbicide Roundup (and glyphosate, its active ingredient) is extensively used for weed control on a worldwide scale. It is absorbed after foliar application and quickly translocated inside the plant. In this study, we investigated the effects of Roundup speed, a commercial glyphosate formulation, on the structural composition (dominance of microbial groups, phospholipid fatty acid analysis-PLFA) and functional diversity (use of carbon sources, Multiple Substrate Induced Respiration- MSIR) of soil microorganisms. We specifically aimed at understanding the potential impact of biotic interactions on herbicide effects and included plants, earthworms, and endomycorrhizal fungi in the experimental setup. For this, we grew clover (Triton= repens) in the greenhouse and added mycorrhizal inoculum (Glomus mosseae) and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) to the pots. Two weeks after foliar Roundup application and subsequent plant death, the pots were destructively sampled. The application resulted in a significant increase of microbial respiration (SIR) by approximately 30%. A multivariate analysis of the MSIR data exhibited small but significant differences between the microbial communities of treated and untreated pots, while no significant difference was apparent for the PLFA data. Bacterial PLFAs generally decreased following herbicide application, while mycorrhizal and fungal PLFAs were not affected. We did not find a consistent difference between the fatty acid markers of gram negative and gram positive bacteria. For all investigated parameters, there were highly significant differences between the upper (0-5 cm depth) and lower (5-10 cm) soil layers. The fact that rooting density differed by a factor of 3.5 between the two layers indicated that herbicide effects were especially pronounced in the clover rhizosphere and were likely due to changes in root exudate composition. We found significant, though very small, interactions between Roundup and other experimental factors (especially mycorrhizal inoculum).
Autor*innen der BOKU Wien:
Bruckner Alexander
Heigl Florian
Schmerbauch Alina
Zaller Johann
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