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Gewählte Publikation:

Schuhmann, A; Gans, O; Weiss, S; Fank, J; Klammler, G; Haberhauer, G; Gerzabek, MH.
(2016): A long-term lysimeter experiment to investigate the environmental dispersion of the herbicide chloridazon and its metabolites-comparison of lysimeter types
J SOIL SEDIMENT. 2016; 16(3): 1032-1045. FullText FullText_BOKU

Abstract:
In order to investigate the long-term fate of the herbicide chloridazon and its polar metabolites desphenyl-chloridazon and methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon, a lysimeter experiment was conducted. The plant protection product Pyramin WG, which contains chloridazon, was applied to a weighable, monolithic lysimeter and a backfilled, gravitation lysimeter. Leachate, soil and maize samples were analyzed, and the data from the monolithic lysimeter was used to simulate the transport through the soil profile with the pesticide leaching model Pesticide Emission Assessment at Regional and Local scales (PEARL). Chloridazon rapidly degraded to desphenyl-chloridazon and methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon. In leachate, chloridazon was therefore detected at concentrations up to 3.5 mu g L-1, whereas the metabolites desphenyl-chloridazon and methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon were present for more than 2 years at higher concentrations up to 24 and 6.1 mu g L-1. The concentrations of chloridazon in soil decreased significantly with depth and time, whereas both metabolites increased up to 370 and 16 mu g kg(-1). The high concentrations, even 916 days after the application, clearly indicate a continuous downward migration and degradation in soil. In maize, chloridazon and purely the metabolite desphenyl-chloridazon were detected in leaves and stems. Desphenyl-chloridazon was additionally found in grains. It was noted that the design and setup of the two lysimeters lead to significant variations in terms of transformation rate, soil retention time and accumulation by plants. A comparison of the simulated results and the leaching rates measured from the monolithic lysimeter yielded adequate results for the metabolites, but rather poor correlation for chloridazon. The results obtained suggest persistence and high dispersion of chloridazon, and especially its metabolites, in leachate and soil. In maize, the migration in leaves and stems and the accumulation by grains might be relevant in terms of food security.
Autor/innen der BOKU Wien:
Gerzabek Martin
Haberhauer Georg
BOKU Gendermonitor:


Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
Chloridazon
Leachate
Lysimeter
Metabolites
PEARL model
Soil


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