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Gewählte Publikation:

Tharad, S; Toca-Herrera, JL; Promdonkoy, B; Krittanai, C; .
(2016): Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 toxin disrupts cell membranes by forming large protein aggregates.
Biosci Rep. 2016; 36(5): FullText FullText_BOKU

Abstract:
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt2Aa2 showed toxicity against Dipteran insect larvae and in vitro lysis activity on several cells. It has potential applications in the biological control of insect larvae. Although pore-forming and/or detergent-like mechanisms were proposed, the mechanism underlying cytolytic activity remains unclear. Analysis of the haemolytic activity of Cyt2Aa2 with osmotic stabilizers revealed partial toxin inhibition, suggesting a distinctive mechanism from the putative pore formation model. Membrane permeability was studied using fluorescent dye entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at various protein/lipid molar ratios. Binding of Cyt2Aa2 monomer to the lipid membrane did not disturb membrane integrity until the critical protein/lipid molar ratio was reached, when Cyt2Aa2 complexes and cytolytic activity were detected. The complexes are large aggregates that appeared as a ladder when separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF). The results showed that Cyt2Aa2 binds on the cell membrane at an early stage without cell membrane disruption. Protein aggregation on the cell membrane was detected later which coincided with cell swelling. Cyt2Aa2 aggregations on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were visualized by AFM. The AFM topographic images revealed Cyt2Aa2 aggregates on the lipid bilayer at low protein concentration and subsequently disrupts the lipid bilayer by forming a lesion as the protein concentration increased. These results supported the mechanism whereby Cyt2Aa2 binds and aggregates on the lipid membrane leading to the formation of non-specific hole and disruption of the cell membrane.
Autor*innen der BOKU Wien:
Toca-Herrera José Luis
Find related publications in this database (using NML MeSH Indexing)
Aedes/chemistry;Aedes/microbiology;Animals;Bacillus thuringiensis/chemistry*;Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolism;Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity;Bacillus thuringiensis/ultrastructure;Bacterial Proteins/chemistry;Bacterial Proteins/metabolism*;Bacterial Proteins/ultrastructure;Cell Membrane/chemistry*;Cell Membrane/metabolism;Cell Membrane/ultrastructure;Cell Membrane Permeability/genetics;Endotoxins/chemistry;Endotoxins/metabolism*;Hemolysin Proteins/chemistry;Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism*;Hemolysin Proteins/ultrastructure;Larva/chemistry;Larva/metabolism;Larva/ultrastructure;Lipid Bilayers/chemistry;Lipid Bilayers/metabolism;Lipid Metabolism/genetics;Microscopy, Atomic Force;Protein Aggregates*;Protein Binding;

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
Bacillus thuringiensis
complex formation
cytolytic activity
protein aggregation


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