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Gewählte Publikation:

Ezekiel, CN; Abia, WA; Braun, D; Sarkanj, B; Ayeni, KI; Oyedele, OA; Michael-Chikezie, EC; Ezekiel, VC; Mark, BN; Ahuchaogu, CP; Krska, R; Sulyok, M; Turner, PC; Warth, B.
(2022): Mycotoxin exposure biomonitoring in breastfed and non-exclusively breastfed Nigerian children
ENVIRON INT. 2022; 158, 106996 FullText FullText_BOKU

A multi-specimen, multi-mycotoxin approach involving ultra-sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis of breast milk, complementary food and urine was applied to examine mycotoxin co-exposure in 65 infants, aged 1-18 months, in Ogun state, Nigeria. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in breast milk (4/22 (18%)), while six other classes of mycotoxins were quantified; including dihydrocitrinone (6/22 (27%); range: 14.0-59.7 ng/L) and sterigmatocystin (1/22 (5%); 1.2 ng/L) detected for the first time. Seven distinct classes of mycotoxins including aflatoxins (9/42 (21%); range: 1.0-16.2 mu g/kg) and fumonisins (12/42 (29%); range: 7.9-194 mu g/kg) contaminated complementary food. Mycotoxins covering seven distinct classes with diverse structures and modes of action were detected in 64/65 (99%) of the urine samples, demonstrating ubiquitous exposure. Two aflatoxin metabolites (AFM1 and AFQ1) and FB1 were detected in 6/65 (9%), 44/65 (68%) and 17/65 (26%) of urine samples, respectively. Mixtures of mycotoxin classes were common, including 22/22 (100%), 14/42 (33%) and 56/65 (86%) samples having 2-6, 2-4, or 2-6 mycotoxins present, for breast milk, complementary food and urine, respectively. Aflatoxin and/or fumonisin was detected in 4/22 (18%), 12/42 (29%) and 46/65 (71%) for breast milk, complimentary foods and urine, respectively. Furthermore, the detection frequency, median concentrations and occurrence of mixtures were typically greater in urine of non-exclusively breastfed compared to exclusively breastfed infants. The study provides novel insights into mycotoxin co-exposures in early-life. Albeit a small sample set, it highlights transition to higher levels of infant mycotoxin exposure as complementary foods are introduced, providing impetus to mitigate during this critical early-life period and encourage breastfeeding.
Autor*innen der BOKU Wien:
Ezekiel Chibundu Ngozi
Ezekiel Victoria Chinyere
Krska Rudolf
Sulyok Michael
Warth Benedikt
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