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Nakhforoosh, A; Grausgruber, H; Kaul, HP; Bodner, G.
(2015): Dissection of drought response of modern and underutilized wheat varieties according to Passioura's yield-water framework
FRONT PLANT SCI. 2015; 6: FullText FullText_BOKU

Abstract:
Trait-based breeding is essential to improve wheat yield, particularly when stress adaptation is targeted. A set of modern and underutilized wheat genotypes was examined in a 2-year field experiment with distinct seasonal water supply. Yield formation and drought response strategies were analyzed in relation to components of Passiouraxxxs yield-water framework based on phenological, morphological, physiological, and root characteristics. Limited water supply resulted in 60% yield loss and substantially lower water use (37%), water use efficiency (32.6%), and harvest index (14%). Phenology and root length density were key determinants of water use. Late flowering underutilized wheat species with large root system and swift ground coverage showed greatest water use. Leaf chlorophyll concentration and stomata conductance were higher in modern cultivars, supporting their high biomass growth and superior water use efficiency. While, lower chlorophyll concentration and stomata conductance of underutilized wheats indicated a water saving strategy with an intrinsic limitation of potential growth. Harvest index was strongly dependent on phenology and yield components. Optimized flowering time, reduced tillering, and strong grain sink of modern cultivars explained higher harvest index compared to underutilized wheats. Cluster analysis revealed the consistent differentiation of underutilized and modern wheats based on traits underlying Passiouraxxxs yield-water framework. We identified physiological and root traits within modern cultivars to be targeted for trait-based crop improvement under water-limited conditions. High capacity of water use in underutilized genetic resources is related to yield-limiting phenological and morphological traits, constraining their potential role for better drought resistance. Still some genetic resources provide adaptive features for stress resistance compatible with high yield as revealed by high harvest index under drought of Khorasan wheat.
Authors BOKU Wien:
Bodner Gernot
Grausgruber Heinrich
Kaul Hans-Peter
Nakhforoosh Alireza
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Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
drought resistance
water use efficiency
genetic resources
phenology
stomatal conductance


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