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Houissa, H; Lasram, S; Sulyok, M; Sarkanj, B; Fontana, A; Strub, C; Krska, R; Schorr-Galindo, S; Ghorbel, A.
(2019): Multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS analysis in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from Tunisia
FOOD CONTROL. 2019; 106, UNSP 106738 FullText FullText_BOKU

The current study assesses the natural occurrence of mycotoxins and fungal metabolites in Tunisian Pearl millet. Investigations using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method were carried out on a total of 220 pearl millet samples collected from farmers (n = 144) located in four different agroecological zones in Tunisia and from retail shops (n = 76). Results revealed fifty-seven regulated and emerging metabolites contaminating 91.4% of grain samples. Among major mycotoxins, both aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were the most prevalent at rate of 8.6% each and occurring at an average level of 106 and 69.4 mu g/kg, respectively. All positives samples were significantly exceeding the European thresholds (5 and 3 mu g/kg, respectively). Lower incidence (5.9%) of Zearalenone (ZEA) contaminated samples at levels below the authorized limits (100 mu g/kg) was recorded. Pearl millet grains from the south coastal zone (CT.S) had significantly the highest mean AFB1 contamination (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, OTA was encountered only in CT.S zone. Furthermore, commercial samples showed higher OTA and ZEA mean concentrations than farmers samples (p < 0.05). As regards emerging mycotoxins, Fusarium mycotoxins including beauvericin (BEA), equisetin (EQUS), monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS) and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) were detected in 43.2%, 43.2%, 11.4% and 10.5% of positive samples, respectively. Furthermore, 12.7%, 50.9%, 53.2% and 14.1% of grains were contaminated with Alternaria mycotoxins namely alternariol (AOH), alternariolmonomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and tenuazonic acid (TA), respectively. The majority of emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins mean levels were significantly higher in grains from north coastal area (p < 0.01). The present study highlighted a wide range of mycotoxins in Tunisian pearl millet with a different mycotoxin patterns within the agroecological zones.
Authors BOKU Wien:
Krska Rudolf
Sulyok Michael
BOKU Gendermonitor:

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Pearl millet

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