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Selected Publication:

Quaglia, M; Beccari, G; Vella, GF; Filippucci, R; Buldini, D; Onofri, A; Sulyok, M; Covarelli, L.
(2023): Marketed Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds: A Mycotoxin-Free Matrix Contaminated by Mycotoxigenic Fungi
PATHOGENS. 2023; 12(3), 418 FullText FullText_BOKU

A total of 25 marketed quinoa seed samples different for origin, farming system and packaging were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi (by isolation both on Potato Dextrose Agar and with the deep-freezing blotter method) and relative contamination by mycotoxins (by LC-MS/MS analysis). Fungal microorganisms, but not mycotoxins, were detected in all the samples, and 25 isolates representative of the mycobiota were obtained. Morphological and molecular characterization and, for some isolates, the in vitro mycotoxigenic profile, allowed the identification of 19 fungal species within five different genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Among the identified species, Alternaria abundans, A. chartarum, A. arborescens, Cladosporium allicinum, C. parasubtilissimum, C. pseudocladosporioides, C. uwebraunianum, Aspergillus jensenii, A. tubingensis, Penicillium dipodomyis, P. verrucosum and P. citreosulfuratum were first reported on quinoa, and Alternaria infectoria and Fusarium oxysporum were first reported on quinoa seeds. The geographical origin, farming system and packaging were showed to affect the amount and type of the isolated fungal species, highlighting that the level of fungal presence and their related secondary metabolites is conditioned by different steps of the quinoa supply chain. However, despite the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi, the marketed quinoa seeds analyzed resulted in being free from mycotoxins.
Authors BOKU Wien:
Sulyok Michael

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