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Warth, B; Fruhmann, P; Wiesenberger, G; Kluger, B; Sarkanj, B; Lemmens, M; Hametner, C; Fröhlich, J; Adam, G; Krska, R; Schuhmacher, R; .
(2015): Deoxynivalenol-sulfates: identification and quantification of novel conjugated (masked) mycotoxins in wheat.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015; 407(4):1033-1039 FullText FullText_BOKU

We report the identification of deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate as two novel metabolites of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat. Wheat ears which were either artificially infected with Fusarium graminearum or directly treated with the major Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were sampled 96 h after treatment. Reference standards, which have been chemically synthesized and confirmed by NMR, were used to establish a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI)-MS/MS-based "dilute and shoot" method for the detection, unambiguous identification, and quantification of both sulfate conjugates in wheat extracts. Using this approach, detection limits of 0.003 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and 0.002 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate were achieved. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification of DON-sulfates in the investigated samples. In DON-treated samples, DON-3-sulfate was detected in the range of 0.29-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight while DON-15-sulfate concentrations were significantly lower (range 0.015-0.061 mg/kg fresh weight). In Fusarium-infected wheat samples, DON-3-sulfate was the only detected sulfate conjugate (range 0.022-0.059 mg/kg fresh weight). These results clearly demonstrate the potential of wheat to form sulfate conjugates of DON. In order to test whether sulfation is a detoxification reaction in planta, we determined the ability of the sulfated DON derivatives to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis of wheat ribosomes. The results demonstrate that both DON-sulfates can be regarded as detoxification products. DON-15-sulfate was about 44x less inhibitory than the native toxin, and no toxicity was observed for DON-3-sulfate in the tested range.
Authors BOKU Wien:
Adam Gerhard
Kluger Bernhard
Krska Rudolf
Lemmens Marc
Schuhmacher Rainer
Warth Benedikt
Wiesenberger Gerlinde

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
Masked mycotoxin
Phase II metabolism
Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Plant-pathogen interaction
Toxicity assessment

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