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Penagos-Tabares, F; Sulyok, M; Nagl, V; Faas, J; Krska, R; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Zebeli, Q.
(2022): Mixtures of mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and pesticides co-occurring in wet spent brewery grains (BSG) intended for dairy cattle feeding in Austria
FOOD ADDIT CONTAM A. 2022; 39(11): 1855-1877. FullText FullText_BOKU

Abstract:
Spent brewery grains (BSG) are the main by-product of beer production and are incorporated in rations of food-delivering animals, mainly dairy cows. Like other agricultural commodities, BSG can be contaminated by a broad spectrum of natural and synthetic undesirable substances, which can be hazardous to animal and human health as well as to the environment. The co-occurrence of mycotoxins, phytoestrogens, other fungal and plant secondary metabolites, along with pesticides, was investigated in 21 BSG samples collected in dairy farms in Austria. For this purpose, a validated multi-metabolite liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) was employed. Metabolites derived from Fusarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and pesticide residues, were ubiquitous in the samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 and HT-2 toxins were the only regulated mycotoxin detected, albeit at concentrations below the European guidance values for animal feeds. Ergot alkaloids, Penicillium-derived metabolites, and phytoestrogens had occurrence rates of 90, 48 and 29%, respectively. Penicillium metabolites presented the highest levels among the fungal compounds, indicating contamination during storage. Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxins and deoxynivalenol (DON) were not detected. Out of the 16 detected pesticides, two fungicides, ametoctradin (9.5%) and mandipropamid (14.3%) revealed concentrations exceeding their respective maximum residue level (MRL) (0.01 mg kg(-1)) for barley in two samples. Although based on European guidance and MRL values the levels of the detected compounds probably do not pose acute risks for cattle, the impact of the long-time exposure to such mixtures of natural and synthetic toxicants on animal health and food safety are unknown and must be elucidated.
Authors BOKU Wien:
Krska Rudolf
Nagl Veronika
Sulyok Michael
BOKU Gendermonitor:


Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
Dietary exposure
feed safety
mixtures toxicology
mycotoxins
pesticide residues
phytoestrogens
spent brewery grains


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