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Agricultural Resources for Biogas Production

Project Leader
Amon Thomas, Project Leader
Duration:
01.06.2006-31.03.2008
Type of Research
Applied Research
Project partners
AGRANA Beteiligungs-AG, Donau-City-Strasse 9, 1220 Wien, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
AgroMais Saatzucht GmbH, Grothues 6, D-48351 Everswinkel, Germany.
Function of the Project Partner: Koordinator
Biogasanlage Bruck/Leitha GmbH & Co KG, Wienergasse 4, 2460 Bruck/Leitha, Austria.
Contact person: DI Gerhard Danzinger ;
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Chamber for Agriculter, Lower Austria, Wienerstr 64, 3100 St.Pölten, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Die Rübenbauern Vertretungs- und Übernahme Ges.m.b.H, Lerchengasse 3-5, 1080 Wien, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
EVN AG, EVN Platz, 2344 Maria Enzersdorf, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Lände 5, A-1090 Wien, Austria.
Contact person: DI Werner Pölz;
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
HBLFA Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Altirdning 11 , 8952 IRDNING, Austria.
Contact person: Univ.Doz. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Erich M. Pötsch Univ.Doz. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Karl Buchgraber;
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
HOLMER Maschinenbau GmbH, Regensburger Str. 20, D-84069 Schierling, Germany.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Jenbacher Energy Systems, Achenseestraße 1-3 , 6200 Jenbach, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
KWS Saat AG, Grimsehlstrasse 31 , D-37555 Einbeck, Germany.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Landeskammer für Land- und Forstwirtschaft in Steiermark, Hamerlinggasse 3, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
Contact person: DI Dr.nat.techn. Karl Mayer;
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Landwirtschaftliche Fachschule Tulln, A-3430 Tulln, Austria.
Contact person: DI Elisabeth Zwatz;
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
OMV AG, Otto Wagner Platz 5 , 1090 Wien, Austria.
Contact person: DI Kurt Pollak;
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Pioneer Seeds Ltd., Pioneerstraße , 7111 Parndorf, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
RWA Raiffeisen Ware Austria AG, Wienerbergstraße 3, 1100 Wien, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Saatbau Linz, OÖ Landes-Saatbaugenossenschaft reg. GenmbH, Schirmerstrasse 19, Postfach 317, 4021 Linz, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Wien Energie Gasnetz GmbH, Josefstädter Strasse 10-12, 1080 Wien, Austria.
Function of the Project Partner: Partner
Staff
Hrbek Regina, Sub Projectleader (bis 16.09.2007)
Kaul Hans-Peter, Sub Projectleader
Friedel Jürgen Kurt, Sub Projectleader
Liebhard Peter, Project Staff
Moder Karl, Project Staff
Wagentristl Helmut, Project Staff
Weißensteiner Roswitha, Project Staff
Götz Maximilian, Project Staff (bis 31.08.2014)
Amon Barbara, Project Staff
Bauer Alexander, Project Staff
Hopfner-Sixt Katharina, Project Staff (bis 30.06.2008)
Kryvoruchko Vitaliy, Project Staff (bis 29.02.2008)
Walla Christoph, Project Staff (bis 30.06.2006)
Bodiroza Vitomir, Project Staff (bis 30.09.2008)
Leonhartsberger Christian, Project Staff (bis 31.01.2011)
Wichmann Stefan, Project Staff (bis 31.12.2009)
Zima Jacqueline, Project Staff (bis 30.06.2007)
Machmüller Andrea, Project Staff (bis 30.06.2007)
Simic Violetta, Project Staff (bis 30.06.2008)
Fistarol Lyson Debora, Project Staff (bis 30.09.2011)
Dubrovina Olga, Project Staff (bis 30.06.2009)
Mayr Herwig Alois, Project Staff (bis 31.10.2009)
Ilic Desanka, Project Staff (bis 31.08.2011)
Milovanovic Dejan, Project Staff (bis 30.06.2008)
BOKU Research Units
Division of Agricultural Engineering
Division of Organic Farming
Experimental Farm Großenzersdorf
Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Economics (AFO)
Institute of Agronomy
Institute of Statistics
Funded by
Pioneer Seeds Ltd., Pioneerstraße, 7111 Parndorf, Austria
RWA Raiffeisen Ware Austria AG, Wienerbergstraße 3, 1100 Wien, Austria
Jenbacher Energy Systems AG , Achenseestraße 1-3, 6200 Jenbach, Austria
Austria Research Promotion Agency - Research and Technology Promotion for Industry, Kärtner Straße 21-23, 1015 Wien, Austria
Biogest environmental engineering Ltd., Chimanistraße 11, 1190 Wien, Austria
KWS seeds inc., Grimsehlstrasse 31, D-37555 Einbeck, Germany
Agrana, Donau-City-Straße 9, A-1220 Wien, Austria
Saatbau Linz, Schirmerstraße 19, A-4021 Linz, Austria
Agromais Saatzucht GmbH, Grothues 6, D-48351 Everswinkel, Germany
OMV AG, Otto Wagner Platz 5, 1090 Wien, Austria
EVN AG, EVN Platz, 2344 Maria Enzersdorf, Austria
Wien Energie Gasnetz GmbH, Josefstädter Strasse 10-12, 1080 Wien, Austria
Die Rübenbauern Vertretungs- und Übernahme Ges.m.b.H, Lerchengasse 3-5, 1080 Wien, Austria
HOLMER Maschinenbau GmbH, Regensburger Str. 20, D-84069 Schierling, Germany
Chamber for Agriculture, Lower Austria, Wienerstr 64, 3100 St.Pölten, Austria
BASF, Kolingasse 12, 1090 Wien, Austria
Abstract
Agriculture as a producer of renewable energy can substantially contribute to a sustainable energy production and subsequently to a considerably CO2 reduction. To meet the future demands of a sustainable energy form without the competition to fodder and food production and environmental conservation efforts, the entire process, from cultivation to fermentation, of biogas production from agrarian raw materials need to be optimised. In this project crop production systems and plant breeding aspects of energy crop production and aspects of the fermentation from energy crop based mixtures are discussed.
The experiment was conducted on several sites in Austria, where a number of varieties and types of the energy crops – maize, sorghum, sunflower, sugar beet, rye, wheat, triticale and barley – were grown and examined in respect of biomass and methane yields. For two grassland sites the optimum utilisation intensity and degree of wilting was tested. Additionally, concepts for site-adapted and ecological balanced crop rotation systems and fertilization ratios have been compiled for three Austrian regions. In a laboratory experiment as well as on a real biogas plant the most important process parameters of the fermentation process within the use of energy crops in combination with co-substrates of the bio-fuel, fodder- and food processing industries have been analysed.
Results from site experiments show that the choice of variety or the variety-type of an energy crop and the climatic conditions of a location had a great effect on dry matter as well as on methane yields. The highest specific methane yields and subsequently methane yields per hectare have been obtained from maize, sorghum and sugar beet, whereas sunflower and cereals have demonstrated their potential as a pre- or intermediate crop. For grasslands the biomass yield and specific methane yield were affected by the utilisation intensity, degree of wilting and herbaceous composition of the cuttings, respectively.
The investigation of site-adapted crop rotation systems with a balanced fertilization gave yearly methane yields per hectare of 1.300 to 1.750 in organic and 1.680 to 3.870 m3N CH4 ha-1 in conventional agricultural systems. Generally, higher yields have been achieved on farms without animal husbandry.
For the examined raw material mixtures the optimum volume load and specific methane yield was determined in laboratory experiments. A better process stability and a higher biogas yield were due to the addition of co-substrates or enzymes. At the biogas plant in Bruck/Leitha an organic and a conventional mixture was monitored. Significant differences have been observed in volume load, hydraulic retention time, degree of degradation, average biogas and methane yield, as well as in the NH4-N content in the fermentation residues.
This project has demonstrated the potentials to optimise the cultivation and fermentation of energy crops for biogas production. Data obtained from the research will serve as basis for further projects, where the methane-energy-value-model (MEVM) is improved and an ecological and economic evaluation of the biogas production process from agrarian raw materials is conducted.
Keywords
environmental research; raw material research, - economics; environmental protection; energy technology; recycling; environmental technology; energy research; raw material research, - economics; renewable resources (energy); environmental protection; agronomy; cereal production, cereals; agricultural machines and equipment; crop husbandry; plant protection; plant breeding; seed breeding; agricultural ecology; organic farming; renewable energy; renewable resources; agricultural machines and equipment; organic farming; renewable resources; agricultural economics; interdisciplinary agriculture and forestry; agricultural machines and equipment; agricultural construction; agricultural ecology; environmental protection;
biogas production; fertiliser strategies; energy crops; enzymes; Methane Energy Value Model (MEVM); sustainable crop rotations; loading rate;
Publications

Amon,T., Bauer,A., Leonhartsberger,Ch. (2008): Integrierte Systeme Sieben Fragen und Antworten zur Nutzung von Bioenergie.

Wissenschaft & Umwelt - Interdisziplinär, 11, 162-171

Leonhartsberger, Ch., Bauer, A., Lyson, D., Kryvoruchko, V., Bodiroza, V., Milovanovic, D., Friedel, J.K., Rinnhofer, T., Amon, T. (2008): Sustainable biogas production through the integration of high-yielding and site-adapted energy crops into crop rotation systems.
[18th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering PRES 2008, Prague, Czech Republic, 24.08.2008 - 28.08.2008]

In: Ing. Jan Novosad (Eds.), 18th International Congres of Chemical and PRocess Engineering 24 - 28 AUgust 2008 Summaries 4 Pres 2008 and System Engineering CHISA 2008, Process Engineering Publisher, www.chisa.cz/2008, 18th INternational Congress of CHemical and Process Engineering PRES 2008, 24.-28. August 2008, Prag; ISBN: 978-80-02-02051-6

Amon, T., Leonahrtsberger, C. (2008): Agrarische Rohstoffe für die Biogaserzeugung .

Mitteilungen der Fachbereichsarbeitsgruppe "Nachwachsende Rohstoffe", 48, 7-7; ISSN 0723-7847

Bauer, A., Hrbek, R., Amon, B., Kryvoruchko, V., Bodiroza, V., Wagentristl, H., Zollitsch, W., Liebmann, B., Pfeffer, M., Friedl, A., Amon, T. (2007): Potential of biogas production in sustainable biorefinery concepts.
[15th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2007 - From Research to Market Deployment - Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, Berlin, Germany, 07.05.2007 - 11.05.2007]

In: ETA-Florence, Italy and WIP-Munich, Germany. , 15th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 7.-11.5.2007, Berlin, Proceedings published by ETA-Florence, Italy and WIP-Munich, Germany

Leonhartsberger, C. (2007): Aktuelle Züchtungsergebnisse bei Biogas-Fruchtfolgen.
[16. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenenergie in der Landwirtschaft 2007, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 12.12.2007]

In: Internationales Biogas und Bioenergie Kompetenzzentrum, Tagungsband 16. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft 11.-12.12.2007 Wolpertshausen, Fördergesellschaft nachhaltige Biogas und Bioenergienutzung; Fachgruppe Biogas Weckelweiler, 16. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenenergie in der Landwirtschaft, 12.12.2007, Wolpertshausen, 46-50

Bauer, A., Lyson, D., Kryvoruchko, V., Amon, B., Bodiroza, V., Amon, T., Simic, V. (2007): Biogaserzeugung aus Energiemais.

Schriftenreihe Club Niederösterreich, Multitalent Biogas II, 4/5/2007. S.8-11

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Bauer, A., Kryvoruchko, V., Amon, B., Bodiroza, V., Ramusch, M., Hrbek, R., Friedel, J.K., Boxberger, J., Zollitsch, W. (2007): Möglichkeiten zur Verbesserung der Gasausbeute aus Gärrohstoffen .

FullText

* Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Bodiroza, V., Kryvoruchko, V., Milovanovic, D., Zollitsch, W., Boxberger, J. (2006): Biogas production from agricultural resources: characteristic values for material and energetic evaluation.

Landtechnik. Fachzeitschrift für Agrartechnik und ländliches Bauen, 3/2006; ISSN 0023-8082 FullText

* Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Bodiroza, V., Kryvoruchko, V., Milovanovic, D., Zollitsch, W., Boxberger, J. (2006): Biogaserzeugung ausagrarischen Rohstoffen.

Landtechnik. Fachzeitschrift für Agrartechnik und ländliches Bauen, 3/2006, 148-149; ISSN 0023-8082

Amon, B., Fröhlich, M., Ramusch, M., Winiwarter W. (2006): Research for climate protection-technological options for mitigation (Reclip:tom)..
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S. (Eds.), DIAS report plant production no. 123, . Vol. II,pp 229 - 231. , 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus; ISBN: ISBN 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Amon, B., Kryvoruchko, V., Fröhlich, M., Amon, T., Pöllinger, A., Mösenbacher, I., Hausleitner, A. (2006): NH3 and GHG emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: housing, and manure storage. .
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S. (Eds.), DIAS report plant production no. 122, Dänemark, Vol. II, pp 171 - 174. , 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus; ISBN: 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Amon, T. (2006): Strategien zur nachhaltigen Erzeugung, Bereitstellung und Nutzung agrarischer Biomasse für die Biogaserzeugung.
[Fachkongress Biogas 06 II 2006 - Zukunfstpotentiale nutzen - Prozesse optimieren, Linz, Austria, 30.11.2006 - 01.12.2006]

In: Klima aktiv (Hrsg.)-Zukunftspotentiale nutzen – Prozesse optimieren, pp.39-51, biogas 06 II, 30.11.-01.12., Linz

Amon, T., Amon B., Kryvoruchko V., Hopfner-Sixt K., Moser, A., Zollitsch, W. (2006): Biogas Forum Austria-Network of research, extension service, and commercial farms..
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S. (Eds.), 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective, DIAS report plant production no. 123, Vol. II, pp 113 - 115, 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September 2006, Aarhus; ISBN: 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Amon, T., Amon, B., Machmüller, A., Hopfner-Sixt K., Kryvoruchko V., Bodiroza, V. (2006): European Biogas Initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants (EU-Agro Biogas)..
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S. (Eds.), DIAS report plant production no. 123, pp 121 - 123. , 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus, Vol. II; ISBN: ISBN 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Hopfner-Sixt, K. (2006): Leistungsvergleich verschiedener Biogasanlagensysteme.
[Fachkongress Biogas 06 II 2006 - Zukunfstpotentiale nutzen - Prozesse optimieren, Linz, Austria, 30.11.2006 - 01.12.2006]

In: Klima aktiv (Hrsg.), pp. 51-60, Biogas 06 II, Zukunfstpotentiale nutzen - Prozesse optimieren, 30.11.-01.12., Linz

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T. (2006): Monitoring landwirtschaftlicher Biogasanlagen in Österreich – Durchmischungstechnik und Kennwerte wesentlicher Prozessparameter.
[15. Symposium Bioenergie 2006, Bad Staffelstein, Germany, 23.11.2006 - 24.11.2006]

In: Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) (Hrsg.): , pp 384 – 389 , 15.Symposium BIOENERGIE – Festbrennstoffe, Flüssigkraftstoffe, Biogas, 23./24. November , Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Milovanovic, D., Amon, B. (2006): Monitoring of energy crop digestion in Austria..
[12th Ramiran International conference 2006 - Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., Aarhus, Denmark, 11.09.2006 - 14.09.2006]

In: Petersen, S.(Eds.) , DIAS report plant production no. 123 Vol. II, Denmark, pp 117 - 119., 12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus, Vol. II; ISBN: ISBN 87-88976-99-8 FullText

Amon T. (2006): Boku-Biogas Branche bündelt Kompetenzen.

Die österreichische Bauernzeitung, 06.04.2006, 14

Amon T. (2006): Halber Gasbedarf wächst auf den Feldern.

Die Presse, 14.04.06, 20 FullText

Amon, T., Kryvoruchko, V., Bodiroza, V., Amon, B. (2006): Das Methanbildungsvermögen und die Biogasqualität bei der Vergärung von Energiepflanzen.

Inform ¿ Zeitschrift für Pflanzenzüchtung und Saatgutproduktion (Linz), 2/2006, 13-15

Amon T. (2006): Forum Biogas neu gegründet.

APA Nachricht, 24. 03. 2006

Amon T. (2006): Abdeckung Gasbedarf durch Biogas.

APA Nachricht, 22. 02. 2006

Amon T., Hopfner-Sixt K., Kryvoruchko V., Amon B., Bodiroza V., Ramusch M., Hrbek R, Friedel J., Zollitsch W., Mayr K. (2006): Energiepflanzen: Erntezeitpunkt bestimmt Gasausbeute.

In: VDMA Landtechnik, VDI-MEG, KTBL (Hrsg.), Jahrbuch der Agrartechnik 2007, 28-32; VDI-Verlag , Düsseldorf

Vorträge

Leonhartsberger, Ch. (2008): Sustainable biogas production through the integration of high-yielding and site-adapted energy crops into crop rotation systems. [Poster]

18th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering PRES 2008, 24.-28. August 2008, Prag

Amon, T. (2007): Potenziale für eine nachhaltige Biogaserzeugung aus heimischen Quellen.

IIR-Jahreskongress GAS 2007, 24.09.2007, Wien

Leonhartsberger, C. (2007): Standortangepasste Energiepflanzensorten und ausgewogene Fruchtfolgen für die Biogasproduktion.

16. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenenergie in der Landwirtschaft, 12.12.2007, Wolpertshausen

Amon, B. (2006): Research for climate protection-technological options for mitigation (Reclip:tom).. [Poster]

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus FullText

Amon, B. (2006): Ammoniakemissionen aus frei gelüfteten Ställen und Wirtschaftsdüngerlagerstätten für Rinder. [Poster]

KTBL-Tagung „Emissionen der Tierhaltung – Messung, Beurteilung und Minderung von Gasen, Stäuben und Keimen“, 5. – 7. Dezember, Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein

Amon, B. (2006): Ammoniak- und Lachgasemissionsn während der Lagerung und nach der Ausbringung von Biogasgülle.

KTBL-Tagung "Emissionen der Tierhaltung - Messung, Beurteilung und Minderung von Gasen, Stäuben und Keimen", 5. – 7. Dezember, Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein

Amon, B., Kryvoruchko, V., Fröhlich, M., Amon, T., Pöllinger, A., Mösenbacher, I., Hausleitner, A. (2006): NH3 and GHG emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: housing, and manure storage. .

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus FullText

Amon, T. (2006): Strategien zur nachhaltigen Erzeugung, Bereitstellung und Nutzung agrarischer Biomasse für die Biogaserzeugung.

biogas 06 II, 30.11.-01.12., Linz

Amon, T., Amon B., Kryvoruchko V., Hopfner-Sixt K., Moser, A., Zollitsch, W. (2006): Biogas Forum Austria-Network of research, extension service, and commercial farms.. [Poster]

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September 2006, Aarhus FullText

Amon, T., Amon, B., Machmüller, A., Hopfner-Sixt K., Kryvoruchko V., Bodiroza, V. (2006): European Biogas Initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants (EU-Agro Biogas).. [Poster]

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus FullText

Hopfner-Sixt, K., Amon, T., Milovanovic, D., Amon, B. (2006): Monitoring of energy crop digestion in Austria.. [Poster]

12th Ramiran International conference Technology for Recycling of Manure and Organic Residues in a Whole-Farm Perspective., 11 – 14 September, Aarhus FullText

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